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NOPO BioPellets are consumed by bacteria, which also consume Nitrate and Phosphate from the water column. As the bacteria metabolize these molecules the pellets are consumed so new pellets need to be added every 3-6 months to compensate for digested substrate.
A proper starting dosage is 6oz of pellets per 50 gallons of system volume. These figures however depend on aquarium conditions and are strongly influenced by feeding regimes and livestock. Taking regular measurements of both nitrate and phosphate levels in the aquarium is recommended, after which dosages may be increased or decreased. We also suggest placing the outlet of the pellet filter in front of a protein skimmer, to limit the amount of bacteria entering the system. This has the additional benefit of increased gas exchange (CO2-removal and O2-addition). The pellets should never be used without sufficient aeration, as this may lead to low oxygen and pH levels during night time. Proper aeration can be established with air pumps or protein skimmers.
When heavy feeding is required, it is recommended to combine the pellets with standard phosphate adsorbents. The reason for this is that most aquarium feeds contain higher levels of phosphate than is consumed by bacteria, fish and invertebrates, when compared to nitrogen. Some phosphate adsorbents however deplete alkalinity and may reduce pH. Using phosphate adsorbent media based on iron hydroxide does not have this disadvantage. Finally, it is important to maintain sufficient water flow through the NOPO BioPellets, to prevent production of hydrogen sulfide gas (H2S). Using a Reef Dynamics Bio-Pellet Reactor can insure proper function and safety when using NOPO Bio-Pellets by virtue of the fact that independent control of both bio-pellet suspension and flow through (process) rates are optimized.